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// This file is part of Substrate.

// Copyright (C) 2019-2020 Parity Technologies (UK) Ltd.
// SPDX-License-Identifier: Apache-2.0

// Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
// you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
// You may obtain a copy of the License at
//
// 	http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
//
// Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
// distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
// WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
// See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
// limitations under the License.

//! Traits for FRAME.
//!
//! NOTE: If you're looking for `parameter_types`, it has moved in to the top-level module.

use sp_std::{prelude::*, result, marker::PhantomData, ops::Div, fmt::Debug};
use codec::{FullCodec, Codec, Encode, Decode, EncodeLike};
use sp_core::u32_trait::Value as U32;
use sp_runtime::{
	RuntimeDebug, ConsensusEngineId, DispatchResult, DispatchError,
	traits::{
		MaybeSerializeDeserialize, AtLeast32Bit, Saturating, TrailingZeroInput, Bounded, Zero,
		BadOrigin, AtLeast32BitUnsigned, UniqueSaturatedFrom, UniqueSaturatedInto,
		SaturatedConversion,
	},
};
use crate::dispatch::Parameter;
use crate::storage::StorageMap;
use crate::weights::Weight;
use bitflags::bitflags;
use impl_trait_for_tuples::impl_for_tuples;

/// Re-expected for the macro.
#[doc(hidden)]
pub use sp_std::{mem::{swap, take}, cell::RefCell, vec::Vec, boxed::Box};

/// Simple trait for providing a filter over a reference to some type.
pub trait Filter<T> {
	/// Determine if a given value should be allowed through the filter (returns `true`) or not.
	fn filter(_: &T) -> bool;
}

impl<T> Filter<T> for () {
	fn filter(_: &T) -> bool { true }
}

/// Trait to add a constraint onto the filter.
pub trait FilterStack<T>: Filter<T> {
	/// The type used to archive the stack.
	type Stack;

	/// Add a new `constraint` onto the filter.
	fn push(constraint: impl Fn(&T) -> bool + 'static);

	/// Removes the most recently pushed, and not-yet-popped, constraint from the filter.
	fn pop();

	/// Clear the filter, returning a value that may be used later to `restore` it.
	fn take() -> Self::Stack;

	/// Restore the filter from a previous `take` operation.
	fn restore(taken: Self::Stack);
}

/// Guard type for pushing a constraint to a `FilterStack` and popping when dropped.
pub struct FilterStackGuard<F: FilterStack<T>, T>(PhantomData<(F, T)>);

/// Guard type for clearing all pushed constraints from a `FilterStack` and reinstating them when
/// dropped.
pub struct ClearFilterGuard<F: FilterStack<T>, T>(Option<F::Stack>, PhantomData<T>);

impl<F: FilterStack<T>, T> FilterStackGuard<F, T> {
	/// Create a new instance, adding a new `constraint` onto the filter `T`, and popping it when
	/// this instance is dropped.
	pub fn new(constraint: impl Fn(&T) -> bool + 'static) -> Self {
		F::push(constraint);
		Self(PhantomData)
	}
}

impl<F: FilterStack<T>, T> Drop for FilterStackGuard<F, T> {
	fn drop(&mut self) {
		F::pop();
	}
}

impl<F: FilterStack<T>, T> ClearFilterGuard<F, T> {
	/// Create a new instance, adding a new `constraint` onto the filter `T`, and popping it when
	/// this instance is dropped.
	pub fn new() -> Self {
		Self(Some(F::take()), PhantomData)
	}
}

impl<F: FilterStack<T>, T> Drop for ClearFilterGuard<F, T> {
	fn drop(&mut self) {
		if let Some(taken) = self.0.take() {
			F::restore(taken);
		}
	}
}

/// Simple trait for providing a filter over a reference to some type, given an instance of itself.
pub trait InstanceFilter<T>: Sized + Send + Sync {
	/// Determine if a given value should be allowed through the filter (returns `true`) or not.
	fn filter(&self, _: &T) -> bool;

	/// Determines whether `self` matches at least everything that `_o` does.
	fn is_superset(&self, _o: &Self) -> bool { false }
}

impl<T> InstanceFilter<T> for () {
	fn filter(&self, _: &T) -> bool { true }
	fn is_superset(&self, _o: &Self) -> bool { true }
}

#[macro_export]
macro_rules! impl_filter_stack {
	($target:ty, $base:ty, $call:ty, $module:ident) => {
		#[cfg(feature = "std")]
		mod $module {
			#[allow(unused_imports)]
			use super::*;
			use $crate::traits::{swap, take, RefCell, Vec, Box, Filter, FilterStack};

			thread_local! {
				static FILTER: RefCell<Vec<Box<dyn Fn(&$call) -> bool + 'static>>> = RefCell::new(Vec::new());
			}

			impl Filter<$call> for $target {
				fn filter(call: &$call) -> bool {
					<$base>::filter(call) &&
						FILTER.with(|filter| filter.borrow().iter().all(|f| f(call)))
				}
			}

			impl FilterStack<$call> for $target {
				type Stack = Vec<Box<dyn Fn(&$call) -> bool + 'static>>;
				fn push(f: impl Fn(&$call) -> bool + 'static) {
					FILTER.with(|filter| filter.borrow_mut().push(Box::new(f)));
				}
				fn pop() {
					FILTER.with(|filter| filter.borrow_mut().pop());
				}
				fn take() -> Self::Stack {
					FILTER.with(|filter| take(filter.borrow_mut().as_mut()))
				}
				fn restore(mut s: Self::Stack) {
					FILTER.with(|filter| swap(filter.borrow_mut().as_mut(), &mut s));
				}
			}
		}

		#[cfg(not(feature = "std"))]
		mod $module {
			#[allow(unused_imports)]
			use super::*;
			use $crate::traits::{swap, take, RefCell, Vec, Box, Filter, FilterStack};

			struct ThisFilter(RefCell<Vec<Box<dyn Fn(&$call) -> bool + 'static>>>);
			// NOTE: Safe only in wasm (guarded above) because there's only one thread.
			unsafe impl Send for ThisFilter {}
			unsafe impl Sync for ThisFilter {}

			static FILTER: ThisFilter = ThisFilter(RefCell::new(Vec::new()));

			impl Filter<$call> for $target {
				fn filter(call: &$call) -> bool {
					<$base>::filter(call) && FILTER.0.borrow().iter().all(|f| f(call))
				}
			}

			impl FilterStack<$call> for $target {
				type Stack = Vec<Box<dyn Fn(&$call) -> bool + 'static>>;
				fn push(f: impl Fn(&$call) -> bool + 'static) {
					FILTER.0.borrow_mut().push(Box::new(f));
				}
				fn pop() {
					FILTER.0.borrow_mut().pop();
				}
				fn take() -> Self::Stack {
					take(FILTER.0.borrow_mut().as_mut())
				}
				fn restore(mut s: Self::Stack) {
					swap(FILTER.0.borrow_mut().as_mut(), &mut s);
				}
			}
		}
	}
}

/// Type that provide some integrity tests.
///
/// This implemented for modules by `decl_module`.
#[impl_for_tuples(30)]
pub trait IntegrityTest {
	/// Run integrity test.
	///
	/// The test is not executed in a externalities provided environment.
	fn integrity_test() {}
}

#[cfg(test)]
mod test_impl_filter_stack {
	use super::*;

	pub struct IsCallable;
	pub struct BaseFilter;
	impl Filter<u32> for BaseFilter {
		fn filter(x: &u32) -> bool { x % 2 == 0 }
	}
	impl_filter_stack!(
		crate::traits::test_impl_filter_stack::IsCallable,
		crate::traits::test_impl_filter_stack::BaseFilter,
		u32,
		is_callable
	);

	#[test]
	fn impl_filter_stack_should_work() {
		assert!(IsCallable::filter(&36));
		assert!(IsCallable::filter(&40));
		assert!(IsCallable::filter(&42));
		assert!(!IsCallable::filter(&43));

		IsCallable::push(|x| *x < 42);
		assert!(IsCallable::filter(&36));
		assert!(IsCallable::filter(&40));
		assert!(!IsCallable::filter(&42));

		IsCallable::push(|x| *x % 3 == 0);
		assert!(IsCallable::filter(&36));
		assert!(!IsCallable::filter(&40));

		IsCallable::pop();
		assert!(IsCallable::filter(&36));
		assert!(IsCallable::filter(&40));
		assert!(!IsCallable::filter(&42));

		let saved = IsCallable::take();
		assert!(IsCallable::filter(&36));
		assert!(IsCallable::filter(&40));
		assert!(IsCallable::filter(&42));
		assert!(!IsCallable::filter(&43));

		IsCallable::restore(saved);
		assert!(IsCallable::filter(&36));
		assert!(IsCallable::filter(&40));
		assert!(!IsCallable::filter(&42));

		IsCallable::pop();
		assert!(IsCallable::filter(&36));
		assert!(IsCallable::filter(&40));
		assert!(IsCallable::filter(&42));
		assert!(!IsCallable::filter(&43));
	}

	#[test]
	fn guards_should_work() {
		assert!(IsCallable::filter(&36));
		assert!(IsCallable::filter(&40));
		assert!(IsCallable::filter(&42));
		assert!(!IsCallable::filter(&43));
		{
			let _guard_1 = FilterStackGuard::<IsCallable, u32>::new(|x| *x < 42);
			assert!(IsCallable::filter(&36));
			assert!(IsCallable::filter(&40));
			assert!(!IsCallable::filter(&42));
			{
				let _guard_2 = FilterStackGuard::<IsCallable, u32>::new(|x| *x % 3 == 0);
				assert!(IsCallable::filter(&36));
				assert!(!IsCallable::filter(&40));
			}
			assert!(IsCallable::filter(&36));
			assert!(IsCallable::filter(&40));
			assert!(!IsCallable::filter(&42));
			{
				let _guard_2 = ClearFilterGuard::<IsCallable, u32>::new();
				assert!(IsCallable::filter(&36));
				assert!(IsCallable::filter(&40));
				assert!(IsCallable::filter(&42));
				assert!(!IsCallable::filter(&43));
			}
			assert!(IsCallable::filter(&36));
			assert!(IsCallable::filter(&40));
			assert!(!IsCallable::filter(&42));
		}
		assert!(IsCallable::filter(&36));
		assert!(IsCallable::filter(&40));
		assert!(IsCallable::filter(&42));
		assert!(!IsCallable::filter(&43));
	}
}

/// An abstraction of a value stored within storage, but possibly as part of a larger composite
/// item.
pub trait StoredMap<K, T> {
	/// Get the item, or its default if it doesn't yet exist; we make no distinction between the
	/// two.
	fn get(k: &K) -> T;
	/// Get whether the item takes up any storage. If this is `false`, then `get` will certainly
	/// return the `T::default()`. If `true`, then there is no implication for `get` (i.e. it
	/// may return any value, including the default).
	///
	/// NOTE: This may still be `true`, even after `remove` is called. This is the case where
	/// a single storage entry is shared between multiple `StoredMap` items single, without
	/// additional logic to enforce it, deletion of any one them doesn't automatically imply
	/// deletion of them all.
	fn is_explicit(k: &K) -> bool;
	/// Mutate the item.
	fn mutate<R>(k: &K, f: impl FnOnce(&mut T) -> R) -> R;
	/// Mutate the item, removing or resetting to default value if it has been mutated to `None`.
	fn mutate_exists<R>(k: &K, f: impl FnOnce(&mut Option<T>) -> R) -> R;
	/// Maybe mutate the item only if an `Ok` value is returned from `f`. Do nothing if an `Err` is
	/// returned. It is removed or reset to default value if it has been mutated to `None`
	fn try_mutate_exists<R, E>(k: &K, f: impl FnOnce(&mut Option<T>) -> Result<R, E>) -> Result<R, E>;
	/// Set the item to something new.
	fn insert(k: &K, t: T) { Self::mutate(k, |i| *i = t); }
	/// Remove the item or otherwise replace it with its default value; we don't care which.
	fn remove(k: &K);
}

/// A simple, generic one-parameter event notifier/handler.
pub trait Happened<T> {
	/// The thing happened.
	fn happened(t: &T);
}

impl<T> Happened<T> for () {
	fn happened(_: &T) {}
}

/// A shim for placing around a storage item in order to use it as a `StoredValue`. Ideally this
/// wouldn't be needed as `StorageValue`s should blanket implement `StoredValue`s, however this
/// would break the ability to have custom impls of `StoredValue`. The other workaround is to
/// implement it directly in the macro.
///
/// This form has the advantage that two additional types are provides, `Created` and `Removed`,
/// which are both generic events that can be tied to handlers to do something in the case of being
/// about to create an account where one didn't previously exist (at all; not just where it used to
/// be the default value), or where the account is being removed or reset back to the default value
/// where previously it did exist (though may have been in a default state). This works well with
/// system module's `CallOnCreatedAccount` and `CallKillAccount`.
pub struct StorageMapShim<
	S,
	Created,
	Removed,
	K,
	T
>(sp_std::marker::PhantomData<(S, Created, Removed, K, T)>);
impl<
	S: StorageMap<K, T, Query=T>,
	Created: Happened<K>,
	Removed: Happened<K>,
	K: FullCodec,
	T: FullCodec,
> StoredMap<K, T> for StorageMapShim<S, Created, Removed, K, T> {
	fn get(k: &K) -> T { S::get(k) }
	fn is_explicit(k: &K) -> bool { S::contains_key(k) }
	fn insert(k: &K, t: T) {
		let existed = S::contains_key(&k);
		S::insert(k, t);
		if !existed {
			Created::happened(k);
		}
	}
	fn remove(k: &K) {
		let existed = S::contains_key(&k);
		S::remove(k);
		if existed {
			Removed::happened(&k);
		}
	}
	fn mutate<R>(k: &K, f: impl FnOnce(&mut T) -> R) -> R {
		let existed = S::contains_key(&k);
		let r = S::mutate(k, f);
		if !existed {
			Created::happened(k);
		}
		r
	}
	fn mutate_exists<R>(k: &K, f: impl FnOnce(&mut Option<T>) -> R) -> R {
		let (existed, exists, r) = S::mutate_exists(k, |maybe_value| {
			let existed = maybe_value.is_some();
			let r = f(maybe_value);
			(existed, maybe_value.is_some(), r)
		});
		if !existed && exists {
			Created::happened(k);
		} else if existed && !exists {
			Removed::happened(k);
		}
		r
	}
	fn try_mutate_exists<R, E>(k: &K, f: impl FnOnce(&mut Option<T>) -> Result<R, E>) -> Result<R, E> {
		S::try_mutate_exists(k, |maybe_value| {
			let existed = maybe_value.is_some();
			f(maybe_value).map(|v| (existed, maybe_value.is_some(), v))
		}).map(|(existed, exists, v)| {
			if !existed && exists {
				Created::happened(k);
			} else if existed && !exists {
				Removed::happened(k);
			}
			v
		})
	}
}

/// Something that can estimate at which block the next session rotation will happen. This should
/// be the same logical unit that dictates `ShouldEndSession` to the session module. No Assumptions
/// are made about the scheduling of the sessions.
pub trait EstimateNextSessionRotation<BlockNumber> {
	/// Return the block number at which the next session rotation is estimated to happen.
	///
	/// None should be returned if the estimation fails to come to an answer
	fn estimate_next_session_rotation(now: BlockNumber) -> Option<BlockNumber>;

	/// Return the weight of calling `estimate_next_session_rotation`
	fn weight(now: BlockNumber) -> Weight;
}

impl<BlockNumber: Bounded> EstimateNextSessionRotation<BlockNumber> for () {
	fn estimate_next_session_rotation(_: BlockNumber) -> Option<BlockNumber> {
		Default::default()
	}

	fn weight(_: BlockNumber) -> Weight {
		0
	}
}

/// Something that can estimate at which block the next `new_session` will be triggered. This must
/// always be implemented by the session module.
pub trait EstimateNextNewSession<BlockNumber> {
	/// Return the block number at which the next new session is estimated to happen.
	fn estimate_next_new_session(now: BlockNumber) -> Option<BlockNumber>;

	/// Return the weight of calling `estimate_next_new_session`
	fn weight(now: BlockNumber) -> Weight;
}

impl<BlockNumber: Bounded> EstimateNextNewSession<BlockNumber> for () {
	fn estimate_next_new_session(_: BlockNumber) -> Option<BlockNumber> {
		Default::default()
	}

	fn weight(_: BlockNumber) -> Weight {
		0
	}
}

/// Anything that can have a `::len()` method.
pub trait Len {
	/// Return the length of data type.
	fn len(&self) -> usize;
}

impl<T: IntoIterator + Clone,> Len for T where <T as IntoIterator>::IntoIter: ExactSizeIterator {
	fn len(&self) -> usize {
		self.clone().into_iter().len()
	}
}

/// A trait for querying a single value from a type.
///
/// It is not required that the value is constant.
pub trait Get<T> {
	/// Return the current value.
	fn get() -> T;
}

impl<T: Default> Get<T> for () {
	fn get() -> T { T::default() }
}

/// A trait for querying whether a type can be said to "contain" a value.
pub trait Contains<T: Ord> {
	/// Return `true` if this "contains" the given value `t`.
	fn contains(t: &T) -> bool { Self::sorted_members().binary_search(t).is_ok() }

	/// Get a vector of all members in the set, ordered.
	fn sorted_members() -> Vec<T>;

	/// Get the number of items in the set.
	fn count() -> usize { Self::sorted_members().len() }

	/// Add an item that would satisfy `contains`. It does not make sure any other
	/// state is correctly maintained or generated.
	///
	/// **Should be used for benchmarking only!!!**
	#[cfg(feature = "runtime-benchmarks")]
	fn add(_t: &T) { unimplemented!() }
}

/// A trait for querying bound for the length of an implementation of `Contains`
pub trait ContainsLengthBound {
	/// Minimum number of elements contained
	fn min_len() -> usize;
	/// Maximum number of elements contained
	fn max_len() -> usize;
}

/// Determiner to say whether a given account is unused.
pub trait IsDeadAccount<AccountId> {
	/// Is the given account dead?
	fn is_dead_account(who: &AccountId) -> bool;
}

impl<AccountId> IsDeadAccount<AccountId> for () {
	fn is_dead_account(_who: &AccountId) -> bool {
		true
	}
}

/// Handler for when a new account has been created.
#[impl_for_tuples(30)]
pub trait OnNewAccount<AccountId> {
	/// A new account `who` has been registered.
	fn on_new_account(who: &AccountId);
}

/// The account with the given id was reaped.
#[impl_for_tuples(30)]
pub trait OnKilledAccount<AccountId> {
	/// The account with the given id was reaped.
	fn on_killed_account(who: &AccountId);
}

/// A trait for finding the author of a block header based on the `PreRuntime` digests contained
/// within it.
pub trait FindAuthor<Author> {
	/// Find the author of a block based on the pre-runtime digests.
	fn find_author<'a, I>(digests: I) -> Option<Author>
		where I: 'a + IntoIterator<Item=(ConsensusEngineId, &'a [u8])>;
}

impl<A> FindAuthor<A> for () {
	fn find_author<'a, I>(_: I) -> Option<A>
		where I: 'a + IntoIterator<Item=(ConsensusEngineId, &'a [u8])>
	{
		None
	}
}

/// A trait for verifying the seal of a header and returning the author.
pub trait VerifySeal<Header, Author> {
	/// Verify a header and return the author, if any.
	fn verify_seal(header: &Header) -> Result<Option<Author>, &'static str>;
}

/// Something which can compute and check proofs of
/// a historical key owner and return full identification data of that
/// key owner.
pub trait KeyOwnerProofSystem<Key> {
	/// The proof of membership itself.
	type Proof: Codec;
	/// The full identification of a key owner and the stash account.
	type IdentificationTuple: Codec;

	/// Prove membership of a key owner in the current block-state.
	///
	/// This should typically only be called off-chain, since it may be
	/// computationally heavy.
	///
	/// Returns `Some` iff the key owner referred to by the given `key` is a
	/// member of the current set.
	fn prove(key: Key) -> Option<Self::Proof>;

	/// Check a proof of membership on-chain. Return `Some` iff the proof is
	/// valid and recent enough to check.
	fn check_proof(key: Key, proof: Self::Proof) -> Option<Self::IdentificationTuple>;
}

impl<Key> KeyOwnerProofSystem<Key> for () {
	// The proof and identification tuples is any bottom type to guarantee that the methods of this
	// implementation can never be called or return anything other than `None`.
	type Proof = crate::Void;
	type IdentificationTuple = crate::Void;

	fn prove(_key: Key) -> Option<Self::Proof> {
		None
	}

	fn check_proof(_key: Key, _proof: Self::Proof) -> Option<Self::IdentificationTuple> {
		None
	}
}

/// Handler for when some currency "account" decreased in balance for
/// some reason.
///
/// The only reason at present for an increase would be for validator rewards, but
/// there may be other reasons in the future or for other chains.
///
/// Reasons for decreases include:
///
/// - Someone got slashed.
/// - Someone paid for a transaction to be included.
pub trait OnUnbalanced<Imbalance: TryDrop> {
	/// Handler for some imbalances. The different imbalances might have different origins or
	/// meanings, dependent on the context. Will default to simply calling on_unbalanced for all
	/// of them. Infallible.
	fn on_unbalanceds<B>(amounts: impl Iterator<Item=Imbalance>) where Imbalance: crate::traits::Imbalance<B> {
		Self::on_unbalanced(amounts.fold(Imbalance::zero(), |i, x| x.merge(i)))
	}

	/// Handler for some imbalance. Infallible.
	fn on_unbalanced(amount: Imbalance) {
		amount.try_drop().unwrap_or_else(Self::on_nonzero_unbalanced)
	}

	/// Actually handle a non-zero imbalance. You probably want to implement this rather than
	/// `on_unbalanced`.
	fn on_nonzero_unbalanced(amount: Imbalance) { drop(amount); }
}

impl<Imbalance: TryDrop> OnUnbalanced<Imbalance> for () {}

/// Simple boolean for whether an account needs to be kept in existence.
#[derive(Copy, Clone, Eq, PartialEq)]
pub enum ExistenceRequirement {
	/// Operation must not result in the account going out of existence.
	///
	/// Note this implies that if the account never existed in the first place, then the operation
	/// may legitimately leave the account unchanged and still non-existent.
	KeepAlive,
	/// Operation may result in account going out of existence.
	AllowDeath,
}

/// A type for which some values make sense to be able to drop without further consideration.
pub trait TryDrop: Sized {
	/// Drop an instance cleanly. Only works if its value represents "no-operation".
	fn try_drop(self) -> Result<(), Self>;
}

/// A trait for a not-quite Linear Type that tracks an imbalance.
///
/// Functions that alter account balances return an object of this trait to
/// express how much account balances have been altered in aggregate. If
/// dropped, the currency system will take some default steps to deal with
/// the imbalance (`balances` module simply reduces or increases its
/// total issuance). Your module should generally handle it in some way,
/// good practice is to do so in a configurable manner using an
/// `OnUnbalanced` type for each situation in which your module needs to
/// handle an imbalance.
///
/// Imbalances can either be Positive (funds were added somewhere without
/// being subtracted elsewhere - e.g. a reward) or Negative (funds deducted
/// somewhere without an equal and opposite addition - e.g. a slash or
/// system fee payment).
///
/// Since they are unsigned, the actual type is always Positive or Negative.
/// The trait makes no distinction except to define the `Opposite` type.
///
/// New instances of zero value can be created (`zero`) and destroyed
/// (`drop_zero`).
///
/// Existing instances can be `split` and merged either consuming `self` with
/// `merge` or mutating `self` with `subsume`. If the target is an `Option`,
/// then `maybe_merge` and `maybe_subsume` might work better. Instances can
/// also be `offset` with an `Opposite` that is less than or equal to in value.
///
/// You can always retrieve the raw balance value using `peek`.
#[must_use]
pub trait Imbalance<Balance>: Sized + TryDrop {
	/// The oppositely imbalanced type. They come in pairs.
	type Opposite: Imbalance<Balance>;

	/// The zero imbalance. Can be destroyed with `drop_zero`.
	fn zero() -> Self;

	/// Drop an instance cleanly. Only works if its `self.value()` is zero.
	fn drop_zero(self) -> Result<(), Self>;

	/// Consume `self` and return two independent instances; the first
	/// is guaranteed to be at most `amount` and the second will be the remainder.
	fn split(self, amount: Balance) -> (Self, Self);

	/// Consume `self` and return two independent instances; the amounts returned will be in
	/// approximately the same ratio as `first`:`second`.
	///
	/// NOTE: This requires up to `first + second` room for a multiply, and `first + second` should
	/// fit into a `u32`. Overflow will safely saturate in both cases.
	fn ration(self, first: u32, second: u32) -> (Self, Self)
		where Balance: From<u32> + Saturating + Div<Output=Balance>
	{
		let total: u32 = first.saturating_add(second);
		let amount1 = self.peek().saturating_mul(first.into()) / total.into();
		self.split(amount1)
	}

	/// Consume self and add its two components, defined by the first component's balance,
	/// element-wise to two pre-existing Imbalances.
	///
	/// A convenient replacement for `split` and `merge`.
	fn split_merge(self, amount: Balance, others: (Self, Self)) -> (Self, Self) {
		let (a, b) = self.split(amount);
		(a.merge(others.0), b.merge(others.1))
	}

	/// Consume self and add its two components, defined by the ratio `first`:`second`,
	/// element-wise to two pre-existing Imbalances.
	///
	/// A convenient replacement for `split` and `merge`.
	fn ration_merge(self, first: u32, second: u32, others: (Self, Self)) -> (Self, Self)
		where Balance: From<u32> + Saturating + Div<Output=Balance>
	{
		let (a, b) = self.ration(first, second);
		(a.merge(others.0), b.merge(others.1))
	}

	/// Consume self and add its two components, defined by the first component's balance,
	/// element-wise into two pre-existing Imbalance refs.
	///
	/// A convenient replacement for `split` and `subsume`.
	fn split_merge_into(self, amount: Balance, others: &mut (Self, Self)) {
		let (a, b) = self.split(amount);
		others.0.subsume(a);
		others.1.subsume(b);
	}

	/// Consume self and add its two components, defined by the ratio `first`:`second`,
	/// element-wise to two pre-existing Imbalances.
	///
	/// A convenient replacement for `split` and `merge`.
	fn ration_merge_into(self, first: u32, second: u32, others: &mut (Self, Self))
		where Balance: From<u32> + Saturating + Div<Output=Balance>
	{
		let (a, b) = self.ration(first, second);
		others.0.subsume(a);
		others.1.subsume(b);
	}

	/// Consume `self` and an `other` to return a new instance that combines
	/// both.
	fn merge(self, other: Self) -> Self;

	/// Consume self to mutate `other` so that it combines both. Just like `subsume`, only with
	/// reversed arguments.
	fn merge_into(self, other: &mut Self) {
		other.subsume(self)
	}

	/// Consume `self` and maybe an `other` to return a new instance that combines
	/// both.
	fn maybe_merge(self, other: Option<Self>) -> Self {
		if let Some(o) = other {
			self.merge(o)
		} else {
			self
		}
	}

	/// Consume an `other` to mutate `self` into a new instance that combines
	/// both.
	fn subsume(&mut self, other: Self);

	/// Maybe consume an `other` to mutate `self` into a new instance that combines
	/// both.
	fn maybe_subsume(&mut self, other: Option<Self>) {
		if let Some(o) = other {
			self.subsume(o)
		}
	}

	/// Consume self and along with an opposite counterpart to return
	/// a combined result.
	///
	/// Returns `Ok` along with a new instance of `Self` if this instance has a
	/// greater value than the `other`. Otherwise returns `Err` with an instance of
	/// the `Opposite`. In both cases the value represents the combination of `self`
	/// and `other`.
	fn offset(self, other: Self::Opposite) -> Result<Self, Self::Opposite>;

	/// The raw value of self.
	fn peek(&self) -> Balance;
}

/// Either a positive or a negative imbalance.
pub enum SignedImbalance<B, P: Imbalance<B>>{
	/// A positive imbalance (funds have been created but none destroyed).
	Positive(P),
	/// A negative imbalance (funds have been destroyed but none created).
	Negative(P::Opposite),
}

impl<
	P: Imbalance<B, Opposite=N>,
	N: Imbalance<B, Opposite=P>,
	B: AtLeast32BitUnsigned + FullCodec + Copy + MaybeSerializeDeserialize + Debug + Default,
> SignedImbalance<B, P> {
	pub fn zero() -> Self {
		SignedImbalance::Positive(P::zero())
	}

	pub fn drop_zero(self) -> Result<(), Self> {
		match self {
			SignedImbalance::Positive(x) => x.drop_zero().map_err(SignedImbalance::Positive),
			SignedImbalance::Negative(x) => x.drop_zero().map_err(SignedImbalance::Negative),
		}
	}

	/// Consume `self` and an `other` to return a new instance that combines
	/// both.
	pub fn merge(self, other: Self) -> Self {
		match (self, other) {
			(SignedImbalance::Positive(one), SignedImbalance::Positive(other)) =>
				SignedImbalance::Positive(one.merge(other)),
			(SignedImbalance::Negative(one), SignedImbalance::Negative(other)) =>
				SignedImbalance::Negative(one.merge(other)),
			(SignedImbalance::Positive(one), SignedImbalance::Negative(other)) =>
				if one.peek() > other.peek() {
					SignedImbalance::Positive(one.offset(other).ok().unwrap_or_else(P::zero))
				} else {
					SignedImbalance::Negative(other.offset(one).ok().unwrap_or_else(N::zero))
				},
			(one, other) => other.merge(one),
		}
	}
}

/// Split an unbalanced amount two ways between a common divisor.
pub struct SplitTwoWays<
	Balance,
	Imbalance,
	Part1,
	Target1,
	Part2,
	Target2,
>(PhantomData<(Balance, Imbalance, Part1, Target1, Part2, Target2)>);

impl<
	Balance: From<u32> + Saturating + Div<Output=Balance>,
	I: Imbalance<Balance>,
	Part1: U32,
	Target1: OnUnbalanced<I>,
	Part2: U32,
	Target2: OnUnbalanced<I>,
> OnUnbalanced<I> for SplitTwoWays<Balance, I, Part1, Target1, Part2, Target2>
{
	fn on_nonzero_unbalanced(amount: I) {
		let total: u32 = Part1::VALUE + Part2::VALUE;
		let amount1 = amount.peek().saturating_mul(Part1::VALUE.into()) / total.into();
		let (imb1, imb2) = amount.split(amount1);
		Target1::on_unbalanced(imb1);
		Target2::on_unbalanced(imb2);
	}
}

/// Abstraction over a fungible assets system.
pub trait Currency<AccountId> {
	/// The balance of an account.
	type Balance: AtLeast32BitUnsigned + FullCodec + Copy + MaybeSerializeDeserialize + Debug +
		Default;

	/// The opaque token type for an imbalance. This is returned by unbalanced operations
	/// and must be dealt with. It may be dropped but cannot be cloned.
	type PositiveImbalance: Imbalance<Self::Balance, Opposite=Self::NegativeImbalance>;

	/// The opaque token type for an imbalance. This is returned by unbalanced operations
	/// and must be dealt with. It may be dropped but cannot be cloned.
	type NegativeImbalance: Imbalance<Self::Balance, Opposite=Self::PositiveImbalance>;

	// PUBLIC IMMUTABLES

	/// The combined balance of `who`.
	fn total_balance(who: &AccountId) -> Self::Balance;

	/// Same result as `slash(who, value)` (but without the side-effects) assuming there are no
	/// balance changes in the meantime and only the reserved balance is not taken into account.
	fn can_slash(who: &AccountId, value: Self::Balance) -> bool;

	/// The total amount of issuance in the system.
	fn total_issuance() -> Self::Balance;

	/// The minimum balance any single account may have. This is equivalent to the `Balances` module's
	/// `ExistentialDeposit`.
	fn minimum_balance() -> Self::Balance;

	/// Reduce the total issuance by `amount` and return the according imbalance. The imbalance will
	/// typically be used to reduce an account by the same amount with e.g. `settle`.
	///
	/// This is infallible, but doesn't guarantee that the entire `amount` is burnt, for example
	/// in the case of underflow.
	fn burn(amount: Self::Balance) -> Self::PositiveImbalance;

	/// Increase the total issuance by `amount` and return the according imbalance. The imbalance
	/// will typically be used to increase an account by the same amount with e.g.
	/// `resolve_into_existing` or `resolve_creating`.
	///
	/// This is infallible, but doesn't guarantee that the entire `amount` is issued, for example
	/// in the case of overflow.
	fn issue(amount: Self::Balance) -> Self::NegativeImbalance;

	/// Produce a pair of imbalances that cancel each other out exactly.
	///
	/// This is just the same as burning and issuing the same amount and has no effect on the
	/// total issuance.
	fn pair(amount: Self::Balance) -> (Self::PositiveImbalance, Self::NegativeImbalance) {
		(Self::burn(amount.clone()), Self::issue(amount))
	}

	/// The 'free' balance of a given account.
	///
	/// This is the only balance that matters in terms of most operations on tokens. It alone
	/// is used to determine the balance when in the contract execution environment. When this
	/// balance falls below the value of `ExistentialDeposit`, then the 'current account' is
	/// deleted: specifically `FreeBalance`.
	///
	/// `system::AccountNonce` is also deleted if `ReservedBalance` is also zero (it also gets
	/// collapsed to zero if it ever becomes less than `ExistentialDeposit`.
	fn free_balance(who: &AccountId) -> Self::Balance;

	/// Returns `Ok` iff the account is able to make a withdrawal of the given amount
	/// for the given reason. Basically, it's just a dry-run of `withdraw`.
	///
	/// `Err(...)` with the reason why not otherwise.
	fn ensure_can_withdraw(
		who: &AccountId,
		_amount: Self::Balance,
		reasons: WithdrawReasons,
		new_balance: Self::Balance,
	) -> DispatchResult;

	// PUBLIC MUTABLES (DANGEROUS)

	/// Transfer some liquid free balance to another staker.
	///
	/// This is a very high-level function. It will ensure all appropriate fees are paid
	/// and no imbalance in the system remains.
	fn transfer(
		source: &AccountId,
		dest: &AccountId,
		value: Self::Balance,
		existence_requirement: ExistenceRequirement,
	) -> DispatchResult;

	/// Deducts up to `value` from the combined balance of `who`, preferring to deduct from the
	/// free balance. This function cannot fail.
	///
	/// The resulting imbalance is the first item of the tuple returned.
	///
	/// As much funds up to `value` will be deducted as possible. If this is less than `value`,
	/// then a non-zero second item will be returned.
	fn slash(
		who: &AccountId,
		value: Self::Balance
	) -> (Self::NegativeImbalance, Self::Balance);

	/// Mints `value` to the free balance of `who`.
	///
	/// If `who` doesn't exist, nothing is done and an Err returned.
	fn deposit_into_existing(
		who: &AccountId,
		value: Self::Balance
	) -> result::Result<Self::PositiveImbalance, DispatchError>;

	/// Similar to deposit_creating, only accepts a `NegativeImbalance` and returns nothing on
	/// success.
	fn resolve_into_existing(
		who: &AccountId,
		value: Self::NegativeImbalance,
	) -> result::Result<(), Self::NegativeImbalance> {
		let v = value.peek();
		match Self::deposit_into_existing(who, v) {
			Ok(opposite) => Ok(drop(value.offset(opposite))),
			_ => Err(value),
		}
	}

	/// Adds up to `value` to the free balance of `who`. If `who` doesn't exist, it is created.
	///
	/// Infallible.
	fn deposit_creating(
		who: &AccountId,
		value: Self::Balance,
	) -> Self::PositiveImbalance;

	/// Similar to deposit_creating, only accepts a `NegativeImbalance` and returns nothing on
	/// success.
	fn resolve_creating(
		who: &AccountId,
		value: Self::NegativeImbalance,
	) {
		let v = value.peek();
		drop(value.offset(Self::deposit_creating(who, v)));
	}

	/// Removes some free balance from `who` account for `reason` if possible. If `liveness` is
	/// `KeepAlive`, then no less than `ExistentialDeposit` must be left remaining.
	///
	/// This checks any locks, vesting, and liquidity requirements. If the removal is not possible,
	/// then it returns `Err`.
	///
	/// If the operation is successful, this will return `Ok` with a `NegativeImbalance` whose value
	/// is `value`.
	fn withdraw(
		who: &AccountId,
		value: Self::Balance,
		reasons: WithdrawReasons,
		liveness: ExistenceRequirement,
	) -> result::Result<Self::NegativeImbalance, DispatchError>;

	/// Similar to withdraw, only accepts a `PositiveImbalance` and returns nothing on success.
	fn settle(
		who: &AccountId,
		value: Self::PositiveImbalance,
		reasons: WithdrawReasons,
		liveness: ExistenceRequirement,
	) -> result::Result<(), Self::PositiveImbalance> {
		let v = value.peek();
		match Self::withdraw(who, v, reasons, liveness) {
			Ok(opposite) => Ok(drop(value.offset(opposite))),
			_ => Err(value),
		}
	}

	/// Ensure an account's free balance equals some value; this will create the account
	/// if needed.
	///
	/// Returns a signed imbalance and status to indicate if the account was successfully updated or update
	/// has led to killing of the account.
	fn make_free_balance_be(
		who: &AccountId,
		balance: Self::Balance,
	) -> SignedImbalance<Self::Balance, Self::PositiveImbalance>;
}

/// Status of funds.
#[derive(PartialEq, Eq, Clone, Copy, Encode, Decode, RuntimeDebug)]
pub enum BalanceStatus {
	/// Funds are free, as corresponding to `free` item in Balances.
	Free,
	/// Funds are reserved, as corresponding to `reserved` item in Balances.
	Reserved,
}

/// A currency where funds can be reserved from the user.
pub trait ReservableCurrency<AccountId>: Currency<AccountId> {
	/// Same result as `reserve(who, value)` (but without the side-effects) assuming there
	/// are no balance changes in the meantime.
	fn can_reserve(who: &AccountId, value: Self::Balance) -> bool;

	/// Deducts up to `value` from reserved balance of `who`. This function cannot fail.
	///
	/// As much funds up to `value` will be deducted as possible. If the reserve balance of `who`
	/// is less than `value`, then a non-zero second item will be returned.
	fn slash_reserved(
		who: &AccountId,
		value: Self::Balance
	) -> (Self::NegativeImbalance, Self::Balance);

	/// The amount of the balance of a given account that is externally reserved; this can still get
	/// slashed, but gets slashed last of all.
	///
	/// This balance is a 'reserve' balance that other subsystems use in order to set aside tokens
	/// that are still 'owned' by the account holder, but which are suspendable.
	///
	/// When this balance falls below the value of `ExistentialDeposit`, then this 'reserve account'
	/// is deleted: specifically, `ReservedBalance`.
	///
	/// `system::AccountNonce` is also deleted if `FreeBalance` is also zero (it also gets
	/// collapsed to zero if it ever becomes less than `ExistentialDeposit`.
	fn reserved_balance(who: &AccountId) -> Self::Balance;

	/// Moves `value` from balance to reserved balance.
	///
	/// If the free balance is lower than `value`, then no funds will be moved and an `Err` will
	/// be returned to notify of this. This is different behavior than `unreserve`.
	fn reserve(who: &AccountId, value: Self::Balance) -> DispatchResult;

	/// Moves up to `value` from reserved balance to free balance. This function cannot fail.
	///
	/// As much funds up to `value` will be moved as possible. If the reserve balance of `who`
	/// is less than `value`, then the remaining amount will be returned.
	///
	/// # NOTES
	///
	/// - This is different from `reserve`.
	/// - If the remaining reserved balance is less than `ExistentialDeposit`, it will
	/// invoke `on_reserved_too_low` and could reap the account.
	fn unreserve(who: &AccountId, value: Self::Balance) -> Self::Balance;

	/// Moves up to `value` from reserved balance of account `slashed` to balance of account
	/// `beneficiary`. `beneficiary` must exist for this to succeed. If it does not, `Err` will be
	/// returned. Funds will be placed in either the `free` balance or the `reserved` balance,
	/// depending on the `status`.
	///
	/// As much funds up to `value` will be deducted as possible. If this is less than `value`,
	/// then `Ok(non_zero)` will be returned.
	fn repatriate_reserved(
		slashed: &AccountId,
		beneficiary: &AccountId,
		value: Self::Balance,
		status: BalanceStatus,
	) -> result::Result<Self::Balance, DispatchError>;
}

/// An identifier for a lock. Used for disambiguating different locks so that
/// they can be individually replaced or removed.
pub type LockIdentifier = [u8; 8];

/// A currency whose accounts can have liquidity restrictions.
pub trait LockableCurrency<AccountId>: Currency<AccountId> {
	/// The quantity used to denote time; usually just a `BlockNumber`.
	type Moment;

	/// The maximum number of locks a user should have on their account.
	type MaxLocks: Get<u32>;

	/// Create a new balance lock on account `who`.
	///
	/// If the new lock is valid (i.e. not already expired), it will push the struct to
	/// the `Locks` vec in storage. Note that you can lock more funds than a user has.
	///
	/// If the lock `id` already exists, this will update it.
	fn set_lock(
		id: LockIdentifier,
		who: &AccountId,
		amount: Self::Balance,
		reasons: WithdrawReasons,
	);

	/// Changes a balance lock (selected by `id`) so that it becomes less liquid in all
	/// parameters or creates a new one if it does not exist.
	///
	/// Calling `extend_lock` on an existing lock `id` differs from `set_lock` in that it
	/// applies the most severe constraints of the two, while `set_lock` replaces the lock
	/// with the new parameters. As in, `extend_lock` will set:
	/// - maximum `amount`
	/// - bitwise mask of all `reasons`
	fn extend_lock(
		id: LockIdentifier,
		who: &AccountId,
		amount: Self::Balance,
		reasons: WithdrawReasons,
	);

	/// Remove an existing lock.
	fn remove_lock(
		id: LockIdentifier,
		who: &AccountId,
	);
}

/// A vesting schedule over a currency. This allows a particular currency to have vesting limits
/// applied to it.
pub trait VestingSchedule<AccountId> {
	/// The quantity used to denote time; usually just a `BlockNumber`.
	type Moment;

	/// The currency that this schedule applies to.
	type Currency: Currency<AccountId>;

	/// Get the amount that is currently being vested and cannot be transferred out of this account.
	/// Returns `None` if the account has no vesting schedule.
	fn vesting_balance(who: &AccountId) -> Option<<Self::Currency as Currency<AccountId>>::Balance>;

	/// Adds a vesting schedule to a given account.
	///
	/// If there already exists a vesting schedule for the given account, an `Err` is returned
	/// and nothing is updated.
	///
	/// Is a no-op if the amount to be vested is zero.
	///
	/// NOTE: This doesn't alter the free balance of the account.
	fn add_vesting_schedule(
		who: &AccountId,
		locked: <Self::Currency as Currency<AccountId>>::Balance,
		per_block: <Self::Currency as Currency<AccountId>>::Balance,
		starting_block: Self::Moment,
	) -> DispatchResult;

	/// Remove a vesting schedule for a given account.
	///
	/// NOTE: This doesn't alter the free balance of the account.
	fn remove_vesting_schedule(who: &AccountId);
}

bitflags! {
	/// Reasons for moving funds out of an account.
	#[derive(Encode, Decode)]
	pub struct WithdrawReasons: i8 {
		/// In order to pay for (system) transaction costs.
		const TRANSACTION_PAYMENT = 0b00000001;
		/// In order to transfer ownership.
		const TRANSFER = 0b00000010;
		/// In order to reserve some funds for a later return or repatriation.
		const RESERVE = 0b00000100;
		/// In order to pay some other (higher-level) fees.
		const FEE = 0b00001000;
		/// In order to tip a validator for transaction inclusion.
		const TIP = 0b00010000;
	}
}

impl WithdrawReasons {
	/// Choose all variants except for `one`.
	///
	/// ```rust
	/// # use frame_support::traits::WithdrawReasons;
	/// # fn main() {
	/// assert_eq!(
	/// 	WithdrawReasons::FEE | WithdrawReasons::TRANSFER | WithdrawReasons::RESERVE | WithdrawReasons::TIP,
	/// 	WithdrawReasons::except(WithdrawReasons::TRANSACTION_PAYMENT),
	///	);
	/// # }
	/// ```
	pub fn except(one: WithdrawReasons) -> WithdrawReasons {
		let mut flags = Self::all();
		flags.toggle(one);
		flags
	}
}

pub trait Time {
	type Moment: AtLeast32Bit + Parameter + Default + Copy;

	fn now() -> Self::Moment;
}

/// Trait to deal with unix time.
pub trait UnixTime {
	/// Return duration since `SystemTime::UNIX_EPOCH`.
	fn now() -> core::time::Duration;
}

/// Trait for type that can handle incremental changes to a set of account IDs.
pub trait ChangeMembers<AccountId: Clone + Ord> {
	/// A number of members `incoming` just joined the set and replaced some `outgoing` ones. The
	/// new set is given by `new`, and need not be sorted.
	///
	/// This resets any previous value of prime.
	fn change_members(incoming: &[AccountId], outgoing: &[AccountId], mut new: Vec<AccountId>) {
		new.sort();
		Self::change_members_sorted(incoming, outgoing, &new[..]);
	}

	/// A number of members `_incoming` just joined the set and replaced some `_outgoing` ones. The
	/// new set is thus given by `sorted_new` and **must be sorted**.
	///
	/// NOTE: This is the only function that needs to be implemented in `ChangeMembers`.
	///
	/// This resets any previous value of prime.
	fn change_members_sorted(
		incoming: &[AccountId],
		outgoing: &[AccountId],
		sorted_new: &[AccountId],
	);

	/// Set the new members; they **must already be sorted**. This will compute the diff and use it to
	/// call `change_members_sorted`.
	///
	/// This resets any previous value of prime.
	fn set_members_sorted(new_members: &[AccountId], old_members: &[AccountId]) {
		let (incoming, outgoing) = Self::compute_members_diff(new_members, old_members);
		Self::change_members_sorted(&incoming[..], &outgoing[..], &new_members);
	}

	/// Compute diff between new and old members; they **must already be sorted**.
	///
	/// Returns incoming and outgoing members.
	fn compute_members_diff(
		new_members: &[AccountId],
		old_members: &[AccountId]
	) -> (Vec<AccountId>, Vec<AccountId>) {
		let mut old_iter = old_members.iter();
		let mut new_iter = new_members.iter();
		let mut incoming = Vec::new();
		let mut outgoing = Vec::new();
		let mut old_i = old_iter.next();
		let mut new_i = new_iter.next();
		loop {
			match (old_i, new_i) {
				(None, None) => break,
				(Some(old), Some(new)) if old == new => {
					old_i = old_iter.next();
					new_i = new_iter.next();
				}
				(Some(old), Some(new)) if old < new => {
					outgoing.push(old.clone());
					old_i = old_iter.next();
				}
				(Some(old), None) => {
					outgoing.push(old.clone());
					old_i = old_iter.next();
				}
				(_, Some(new)) => {
					incoming.push(new.clone());
					new_i = new_iter.next();
				}
			}
		}
		(incoming, outgoing)
	}

	/// Set the prime member.
	fn set_prime(_prime: Option<AccountId>) {}
}

impl<T: Clone + Ord> ChangeMembers<T> for () {
	fn change_members(_: &[T], _: &[T], _: Vec<T>) {}
	fn change_members_sorted(_: &[T], _: &[T], _: &[T]) {}
	fn set_members_sorted(_: &[T], _: &[T]) {}
	fn set_prime(_: Option<T>) {}
}

/// Trait for type that can handle the initialization of account IDs at genesis.
pub trait InitializeMembers<AccountId> {
	/// Initialize the members to the given `members`.
	fn initialize_members(members: &[AccountId]);
}

impl<T> InitializeMembers<T> for () {
	fn initialize_members(_: &[T]) {}
}

// A trait that is able to provide randomness.
pub trait Randomness<Output> {
	/// Get a "random" value
	///
	/// Being a deterministic blockchain, real randomness is difficult to come by. This gives you
	/// something that approximates it. At best, this will be randomness which was
	/// hard to predict a long time ago, but that has become easy to predict recently.
	///
	/// `subject` is a context identifier and allows you to get a
	/// different result to other callers of this function; use it like
	/// `random(&b"my context"[..])`.
	fn random(subject: &[u8]) -> Output;

	/// Get the basic random seed.
	///
	/// In general you won't want to use this, but rather `Self::random` which allows you to give a
	/// subject for the random result and whose value will be independently low-influence random
	/// from any other such seeds.
	fn random_seed() -> Output {
		Self::random(&[][..])
	}
}

/// Provides an implementation of [`Randomness`] that should only be used in tests!
pub struct TestRandomness;

impl<Output: Decode + Default> Randomness<Output> for TestRandomness {
	fn random(subject: &[u8]) -> Output {
		Output::decode(&mut TrailingZeroInput::new(subject)).unwrap_or_default()
	}
}

/// Trait to be used by block producing consensus engine modules to determine
/// how late the current block is (e.g. in a slot-based proposal mechanism how
/// many slots were skipped since the previous block).
pub trait Lateness<N> {
	/// Returns a generic measure of how late the current block is compared to
	/// its parent.
	fn lateness(&self) -> N;
}

impl<N: Zero> Lateness<N> for () {
	fn lateness(&self) -> N {
		Zero::zero()
	}
}

/// Implementors of this trait provide information about whether or not some validator has
/// been registered with them. The [Session module](../../pallet_session/index.html) is an implementor.
pub trait ValidatorRegistration<ValidatorId> {
	/// Returns true if the provided validator ID has been registered with the implementing runtime
	/// module
	fn is_registered(id: &ValidatorId) -> bool;
}

/// Provides information about the pallet setup in the runtime.
///
/// An implementor should be able to provide information about each pallet that
/// is configured in `construct_runtime!`.
pub trait PalletInfo {
	/// Convert the given pallet `P` into its index as configured in the runtime.
	fn index<P: 'static>() -> Option<usize>;
	/// Convert the given pallet `P` into its name as configured in the runtime.
	fn name<P: 'static>() -> Option<&'static str>;
}

impl PalletInfo for () {
	fn index<P: 'static>() -> Option<usize> { Some(0) }
	fn name<P: 'static>() -> Option<&'static str> { Some("test") }
}

/// The function and pallet name of the Call.
#[derive(Clone, Eq, PartialEq, Default, RuntimeDebug)]
pub struct CallMetadata {
	/// Name of the function.
	pub function_name: &'static str,
	/// Name of the pallet to which the function belongs.
	pub pallet_name: &'static str,
}

/// Gets the function name of the Call.
pub trait GetCallName {
	/// Return all function names.
	fn get_call_names() -> &'static [&'static str];
	/// Return the function name of the Call.
	fn get_call_name(&self) -> &'static str;
}

/// Gets the metadata for the Call - function name and pallet name.
pub trait GetCallMetadata {
	/// Return all module names.
	fn get_module_names() -> &'static [&'static str];
	/// Return all function names for the given `module`.
	fn get_call_names(module: &str) -> &'static [&'static str];
	/// Return a [`CallMetadata`], containing function and pallet name of the Call.
	fn get_call_metadata(&self) -> CallMetadata;
}

/// The block finalization trait.
///
/// Implementing this lets you express what should happen for your pallet when the block is ending.
#[impl_for_tuples(30)]
pub trait OnFinalize<BlockNumber> {
	/// The block is being finalized. Implement to have something happen.
	///
	/// NOTE: This function is called AFTER ALL extrinsics in a block are applied,
	/// including inherent extrinsics.
	fn on_finalize(_n: BlockNumber) {}
}

/// The block initialization trait.
///
/// Implementing this lets you express what should happen for your pallet when the block is
/// beginning (right before the first extrinsic is executed).
pub trait OnInitialize<BlockNumber> {
	/// The block is being initialized. Implement to have something happen.
	///
	/// Return the non-negotiable weight consumed in the block.
	///
	/// NOTE: This function is called BEFORE ANY extrinsic in a block is applied,
	/// including inherent extrinsics. Hence for instance, if you runtime includes
	/// `pallet_timestamp`, the `timestamp` is not yet up to date at this point.
	fn on_initialize(_n: BlockNumber) -> crate::weights::Weight { 0 }
}

#[impl_for_tuples(30)]
impl<BlockNumber: Clone> OnInitialize<BlockNumber> for Tuple {
	fn on_initialize(_n: BlockNumber) -> crate::weights::Weight {
		let mut weight = 0;
		for_tuples!( #( weight = weight.saturating_add(Tuple::on_initialize(_n.clone())); )* );
		weight
	}
}

/// A trait that will be called at genesis.
///
/// Implementing this trait for a pallet let's you express operations that should
/// happen at genesis. It will be called in an externalities provided environment and
/// will see the genesis state after all pallets have written their genesis state.
#[impl_for_tuples(30)]
pub trait OnGenesis {
	/// Something that should happen at genesis.
	fn on_genesis() {}
}

/// The runtime upgrade trait.
///
/// Implementing this lets you express what should happen when the runtime upgrades,
/// and changes may need to occur to your module.
pub trait OnRuntimeUpgrade {
	/// Perform a module upgrade.
	///
	/// # Warning
	///
	/// This function will be called before we initialized any runtime state, aka `on_initialize`
	/// wasn't called yet. So, information like the block number and any other
	/// block local data are not accessible.
	///
	/// Return the non-negotiable weight consumed for runtime upgrade.
	fn on_runtime_upgrade() -> crate::weights::Weight { 0 }
}

#[impl_for_tuples(30)]
impl OnRuntimeUpgrade for Tuple {
	fn on_runtime_upgrade() -> crate::weights::Weight {
		let mut weight = 0;
		for_tuples!( #( weight = weight.saturating_add(Tuple::on_runtime_upgrade()); )* );
		weight
	}
}

/// Off-chain computation trait.
///
/// Implementing this trait on a module allows you to perform long-running tasks
/// that make (by default) validators generate transactions that feed results
/// of those long-running computations back on chain.
///
/// NOTE: This function runs off-chain, so it can access the block state,
/// but cannot preform any alterations. More specifically alterations are
/// not forbidden, but they are not persisted in any way after the worker
/// has finished.
#[impl_for_tuples(30)]
pub trait OffchainWorker<BlockNumber> {
	/// This function is being called after every block import (when fully synced).
	///
	/// Implement this and use any of the `Offchain` `sp_io` set of APIs
	/// to perform off-chain computations, calls and submit transactions
	/// with results to trigger any on-chain changes.
	/// Any state alterations are lost and are not persisted.
	fn offchain_worker(_n: BlockNumber) {}
}

pub mod schedule {
	use super::*;

	/// Information relating to the period of a scheduled task. First item is the length of the
	/// period and the second is the number of times it should be executed in total before the task
	/// is considered finished and removed.
	pub type Period<BlockNumber> = (BlockNumber, u32);

	/// Priority with which a call is scheduled. It's just a linear amount with lowest values meaning
	/// higher priority.
	pub type Priority = u8;

	/// The dispatch time of a scheduled task.
	#[derive(Encode, Decode, Copy, Clone, PartialEq, Eq, RuntimeDebug)]
	pub enum DispatchTime<BlockNumber> {
		/// At specified block.
		At(BlockNumber),
		/// After specified number of blocks.
		After(BlockNumber),
	}

	/// The highest priority. We invert the value so that normal sorting will place the highest
	/// priority at the beginning of the list.
	pub const HIGHEST_PRIORITY: Priority = 0;
	/// Anything of this value or lower will definitely be scheduled on the block that they ask for, even
	/// if it breaches the `MaximumWeight` limitation.
	pub const HARD_DEADLINE: Priority = 63;
	/// The lowest priority. Most stuff should be around here.
	pub const LOWEST_PRIORITY: Priority = 255;

	/// A type that can be used as a scheduler.
	pub trait Anon<BlockNumber, Call, Origin> {
		/// An address which can be used for removing a scheduled task.
		type Address: Codec + Clone + Eq + EncodeLike + Debug;

		/// Schedule a dispatch to happen at the beginning of some block in the future.
		///
		/// This is not named.
		fn schedule(
			when: DispatchTime<BlockNumber>,
			maybe_periodic: Option<Period<BlockNumber>>,
			priority: Priority,
			origin: Origin,
			call: Call
		) -> Result<Self::Address, DispatchError>;

		/// Cancel a scheduled task. If periodic, then it will cancel all further instances of that,
		/// also.
		///
		/// Will return an error if the `address` is invalid.
		///
		/// NOTE: This guaranteed to work only *before* the point that it is due to be executed.
		/// If it ends up being delayed beyond the point of execution, then it cannot be cancelled.
		///
		/// NOTE2: This will not work to cancel periodic tasks after their initial execution. For
		/// that, you must name the task explicitly using the `Named` trait.
		fn cancel(address: Self::Address) -> Result<(), ()>;

		/// Reschedule a task. For one-off tasks, this dispatch is guaranteed to succeed
		/// only if it is executed *before* the currently scheduled block. For periodic tasks,
		/// this dispatch is guaranteed to succeed only before the *initial* execution; for
		/// others, use `reschedule_named`.
		///
		/// Will return an error if the `address` is invalid.
		fn reschedule(
			address: Self::Address,
			when: DispatchTime<BlockNumber>,
		) -> Result<Self::Address, DispatchError>;

		/// Return the next dispatch time for a given task.
		///
		/// Will return an error if the `address` is invalid.
		fn next_dispatch_time(address: Self::Address) -> Result<BlockNumber, ()>;
	}

	/// A type that can be used as a scheduler.
	pub trait Named<BlockNumber, Call, Origin> {
		/// An address which can be used for removing a scheduled task.
		type Address: Codec + Clone + Eq + EncodeLike + sp_std::fmt::Debug;

		/// Schedule a dispatch to happen at the beginning of some block in the future.
		///
		/// - `id`: The identity of the task. This must be unique and will return an error if not.
		fn schedule_named(
			id: Vec<u8>,
			when: DispatchTime<BlockNumber>,
			maybe_periodic: Option<Period<BlockNumber>>,
			priority: Priority,
			origin: Origin,
			call: Call
		) -> Result<Self::Address, ()>;

		/// Cancel a scheduled, named task. If periodic, then it will cancel all further instances
		/// of that, also.
		///
		/// Will return an error if the `id` is invalid.
		///
		/// NOTE: This guaranteed to work only *before* the point that it is due to be executed.
		/// If it ends up being delayed beyond the point of execution, then it cannot be cancelled.
		fn cancel_named(id: Vec<u8>) -> Result<(), ()>;

		/// Reschedule a task. For one-off tasks, this dispatch is guaranteed to succeed
		/// only if it is executed *before* the currently scheduled block.
		fn reschedule_named(
			id: Vec<u8>,
			when: DispatchTime<BlockNumber>,
		) -> Result<Self::Address, DispatchError>;

		/// Return the next dispatch time for a given task.
		///
		/// Will return an error if the `id` is invalid.
		fn next_dispatch_time(id: Vec<u8>) -> Result<BlockNumber, ()>;
	}
}

/// Some sort of check on the origin is performed by this object.
pub trait EnsureOrigin<OuterOrigin> {
	/// A return type.
	type Success;
	/// Perform the origin check.
	fn ensure_origin(o: OuterOrigin) -> result::Result<Self::Success, BadOrigin> {
		Self::try_origin(o).map_err(|_| BadOrigin)
	}
	/// Perform the origin check.
	fn try_origin(o: OuterOrigin) -> result::Result<Self::Success, OuterOrigin>;

	/// Returns an outer origin capable of passing `try_origin` check.
	///
	/// ** Should be used for benchmarking only!!! **
	#[cfg(feature = "runtime-benchmarks")]
	fn successful_origin() -> OuterOrigin;
}

/// Type that can be dispatched with an origin but without checking the origin filter.
///
/// Implemented for pallet dispatchable type by `decl_module` and for runtime dispatchable by
/// `construct_runtime` and `impl_outer_dispatch`.
pub trait UnfilteredDispatchable {
	/// The origin type of the runtime, (i.e. `frame_system::Trait::Origin`).
	type Origin;

	/// Dispatch this call but do not check the filter in origin.
	fn dispatch_bypass_filter(self, origin: Self::Origin) -> crate::dispatch::DispatchResultWithPostInfo;
}

/// Methods available on `frame_system::Trait::Origin`.
pub trait OriginTrait: Sized {
	/// Runtime call type, as in `frame_system::Trait::Call`
	type Call;

	/// The caller origin, overarching type of all pallets origins.
	type PalletsOrigin;

	/// The AccountId used across the system.
	type AccountId;

	/// Add a filter to the origin.
	fn add_filter(&mut self, filter: impl Fn(&Self::Call) -> bool + 'static);

	/// Reset origin filters to default one, i.e `frame_system::Trait::BaseCallFilter`.
	fn reset_filter(&mut self);

	/// Replace the caller with caller from the other origin
	fn set_caller_from(&mut self, other: impl Into<Self>);

	/// Filter the call, if false then call is filtered out.
	fn filter_call(&self, call: &Self::Call) -> bool;

	/// Get the caller.
	fn caller(&self) -> &Self::PalletsOrigin;

	/// Create with system none origin and `frame-system::Trait::BaseCallFilter`.
	fn none() -> Self;

	/// Create with system root origin and no filter.
	fn root() -> Self;

	/// Create with system signed origin and `frame-system::Trait::BaseCallFilter`.
	fn signed(by: Self::AccountId) -> Self;
}

/// Trait to be used when types are exactly same.
///
/// This allow to convert back and forth from type, a reference and a mutable reference.
pub trait IsType<T>: Into<T> + From<T> {
	/// Cast reference.
	fn from_ref(t: &T) -> &Self;

	/// Cast reference.
	fn into_ref(&self) -> &T;

	/// Cast mutable reference.
	fn from_mut(t: &mut T) -> &mut Self;

	/// Cast mutable reference.
	fn into_mut(&mut self) -> &mut T;
}

impl<T> IsType<T> for T {
	fn from_ref(t: &T) -> &Self { t }
	fn into_ref(&self) -> &T { self }
	fn from_mut(t: &mut T) -> &mut Self { t }
	fn into_mut(&mut self) -> &mut T { self }
}

/// An instance of a pallet in the storage.
///
/// It is required that these instances are unique, to support multiple instances per pallet in the same runtime!
///
/// E.g. for module MyModule default instance will have prefix "MyModule" and other instances
/// "InstanceNMyModule".
pub trait Instance: 'static {
	/// Unique module prefix. E.g. "InstanceNMyModule" or "MyModule"
	const PREFIX: &'static str;
}

/// An instance of a storage.
///
/// It is required the the couple `(PalletInfo::name<Pallet>(), STORAGE_PREFIX)` is unique.
/// Any storage with same couple will collide.
pub trait StorageInstance {
	type Pallet: 'static;
	type PalletInfo: PalletInfo;
	const STORAGE_PREFIX: &'static str;
}

/// Implement Get by returning Default for any type that implements Default.
pub struct GetDefault;
impl<T: Default> crate::traits::Get<T> for GetDefault {
	fn get() -> T {
		T::default()
	}
}

/// A trait similar to `Convert` to convert values from `B` an abstract balance type
/// into u64 and back from u128. (This conversion is used in election and other places where complex
/// calculation over balance type is needed)
///
/// Total issuance of the currency is passed in, but an implementation of this trait may or may not
/// use it.
///
/// # WARNING
///
/// the total issuance being passed in implies that the implementation must be aware of the fact
/// that its values can affect the outcome. This implies that if the vote value is dependent on the
/// total issuance, it should never ber written to storage for later re-use.
pub trait CurrencyToVote<B> {
	/// Convert balance to u64.
	fn to_vote(value: B, issuance: B) -> u64;

	/// Convert u128 to balance.
	fn to_currency(value: u128, issuance: B) -> B;
}

/// An implementation of `CurrencyToVote` tailored for chain's that have a balance type of u128.
///
/// The factor is the `(total_issuance / u64::max()).max(1)`, represented as u64. Let's look at the
/// important cases:
///
/// If the chain's total issuance is less than u64::max(), this will always be 1, which means that
/// the factor will not have any effect. In this case, any account's balance is also less. Thus,
/// both of the conversions are basically an `as`; Any balance can fit in u64.
///
/// If the chain's total issuance is more than 2*u64::max(), then a factor might be multiplied and
/// divided upon conversion.
pub struct U128CurrencyToVote;

impl U128CurrencyToVote {
	fn factor(issuance: u128) -> u128 {
		(issuance / u64::max_value() as u128).max(1)
	}
}

impl CurrencyToVote<u128> for U128CurrencyToVote {
	fn to_vote(value: u128, issuance: u128) -> u64 {
		(value / Self::factor(issuance)).saturated_into()
	}

	fn to_currency(value: u128, issuance: u128) -> u128 {
		value.saturating_mul(Self::factor(issuance))
	}
}


/// A naive implementation of `CurrencyConvert` that simply saturates all conversions.
///
/// # Warning
///
/// This is designed to be used mostly for testing. Use with care, and think about the consequences.
pub struct SaturatingCurrencyToVote;

impl<B: UniqueSaturatedInto<u64> + UniqueSaturatedFrom<u128>> CurrencyToVote<B> for SaturatingCurrencyToVote {
	fn to_vote(value: B, _: B) -> u64 {
		value.unique_saturated_into()
	}

	fn to_currency(value: u128, _: B) -> B {
		B::unique_saturated_from(value)
	}
}

/// Something that can be checked to be a of sub type `T`.
///
/// This is useful for enums where each variant encapsulates a different sub type, and
/// you need access to these sub types.
///
/// For example, in FRAME, this trait is implemented for the runtime `Call` enum. Pallets use this
/// to check if a certain call is an instance of the local pallet's `Call` enum.
///
/// # Example
///
/// ```
/// # use frame_support::traits::IsSubType;
///
/// enum Test {
///     String(String),
///     U32(u32),
/// }
///
/// impl IsSubType<String> for Test {
///     fn is_sub_type(&self) -> Option<&String> {
///         match self {
///             Self::String(ref r) => Some(r),
///             _ => None,
///         }
///     }
/// }
///
/// impl IsSubType<u32> for Test {
///     fn is_sub_type(&self) -> Option<&u32> {
///         match self {
///             Self::U32(ref r) => Some(r),
///             _ => None,
///         }
///     }
/// }
///
/// fn main() {
///     let data = Test::String("test".into());
///
///     assert_eq!("test", IsSubType::<String>::is_sub_type(&data).unwrap().as_str());
/// }
/// ```
pub trait IsSubType<T> {
	/// Returns `Some(_)` if `self` is an instance of sub type `T`.
	fn is_sub_type(&self) -> Option<&T>;
}

/// The storage key postfix that is used to store the [`PalletVersion`] per pallet.
///
/// The full storage key is built by using:
/// Twox128([`PalletInfo::name`]) ++ Twox128([`PALLET_VERSION_STORAGE_KEY_POSTFIX`])
pub const PALLET_VERSION_STORAGE_KEY_POSTFIX: &[u8] = b":__PALLET_VERSION__:";

/// The version of a pallet.
///
/// Each pallet version is stored in the state under a fixed key. See
/// [`PALLET_VERSION_STORAGE_KEY_POSTFIX`] for how this key is built.
#[derive(RuntimeDebug, Eq, PartialEq, Encode, Decode, Ord, Clone, Copy)]
pub struct PalletVersion {
	/// The major version of the pallet.
	pub major: u16,
	/// The minor version of the pallet.
	pub minor: u8,
	/// The patch version of the pallet.
	pub patch: u8,
}

impl PalletVersion {
	/// Creates a new instance of `Self`.
	pub fn new(major: u16, minor: u8, patch: u8) -> Self {
		Self {
			major,
			minor,
			patch,
		}
	}

	/// Returns the storage key for a pallet version.
	///
	/// See [`PALLET_VERSION_STORAGE_KEY_POSTIFX`] on how this key is built.
	///
	/// Returns `None` if the given `PI` returned a `None` as name for the given
	/// `Pallet`.
	pub fn storage_key<PI: PalletInfo, Pallet: 'static>() -> Option<[u8; 32]> {
		let pallet_name = PI::name::<Pallet>()?;

		let pallet_name = sp_io::hashing::twox_128(pallet_name.as_bytes());
		let postfix = sp_io::hashing::twox_128(PALLET_VERSION_STORAGE_KEY_POSTFIX);

		let mut final_key = [0u8; 32];
		final_key[..16].copy_from_slice(&pallet_name);
		final_key[16..].copy_from_slice(&postfix);

		Some(final_key)
	}

	/// Put this pallet version into the storage.
	///
	/// It will use the storage key that is associated with the given `Pallet`.
	///
	/// # Panics
	///
	/// This function will panic iff `Pallet` can not be found by `PalletInfo`.
	/// In a runtime that is put together using
	/// [`construct_runtime!`](crate::construct_runtime) this should never happen.
	///
	/// It will also panic if this function isn't executed in an externalities
	/// provided environment.
	pub fn put_into_storage<PI: PalletInfo, Pallet: 'static>(&self) {
		let key = Self::storage_key::<PI, Pallet>()
			.expect("Every active pallet has a name in the runtime; qed");

		crate::storage::unhashed::put(&key, self);
	}
}

impl sp_std::cmp::PartialOrd for PalletVersion {
	fn partial_cmp(&self, other: &Self) -> Option<sp_std::cmp::Ordering> {
		let res = self.major
			.cmp(&other.major)
			.then_with(||
				self.minor
					.cmp(&other.minor)
					.then_with(|| self.patch.cmp(&other.patch)
			));

		Some(res)
	}
}

/// Provides version information about a pallet.
///
/// This trait provides two functions for returning the version of a
/// pallet. There is a state where both functions can return distinct versions.
/// See [`GetPalletVersion::storage_version`] for more information about this.
pub trait GetPalletVersion {
	/// Returns the current version of the pallet.
	fn current_version() -> PalletVersion;

	/// Returns the version of the pallet that is stored in storage.
	///
	/// Most of the time this will return the exact same version as
	/// [`GetPalletVersion::current_version`]. Only when being in
	/// a state after a runtime upgrade happened and the pallet did
	/// not yet updated its version in storage, this will return a
	/// different(the previous, seen from the time of calling) version.
	///
	/// See [`PalletVersion`] for more information.
	///
	/// # Note
	///
	/// If there was no previous version of the pallet stored in the state,
	/// this function returns `None`.
	fn storage_version() -> Option<PalletVersion>;
}

#[cfg(test)]
mod tests {
	use super::*;

	#[test]
	fn on_initialize_and_on_runtime_upgrade_weight_merge_works() {
		struct Test;
		impl OnInitialize<u8> for Test {
			fn on_initialize(_n: u8) -> crate::weights::Weight {
				10
			}
		}
		impl OnRuntimeUpgrade for Test {
			fn on_runtime_upgrade() -> crate::weights::Weight {
				20
			}
		}

		assert_eq!(<(Test, Test)>::on_initialize(0), 20);
		assert_eq!(<(Test, Test)>::on_runtime_upgrade(), 40);
	}

	#[test]
	fn check_pallet_version_ordering() {
		let version = PalletVersion::new(1, 0, 0);
		assert!(version > PalletVersion::new(0, 1, 2));
		assert!(version == PalletVersion::new(1, 0, 0));
		assert!(version < PalletVersion::new(1, 0, 1));
		assert!(version < PalletVersion::new(1, 1, 0));

		let version = PalletVersion::new(2, 50, 50);
		assert!(version < PalletVersion::new(2, 50, 51));
		assert!(version > PalletVersion::new(2, 49, 51));
		assert!(version < PalletVersion::new(3, 49, 51));
	}
}